Firefighters sent to put out the blaze found 14 bodies in the factory in the town of Yegoryevsk, southeast of Moscow, and four victims were hospitalised with burns, the Moscow region emergencies department said.
All those killed were Vietnamese citizens , the Federal Emergency Situations Ministry said. The Interfax news agency said the garment factory was illegal.
Many migrant workers from Asian countries work in Russian factories in cramped conditions that are often at risk from fires. Death rates from fires are far higher in Russia than in Western countries such as Britain and the United States.