Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov has said "No" to the West so many times over Syria that he may come to rival a Cold War predecessor for the title of "Mr Nyet".
The chain-smoking, battle-hardened diplomat is proving every
bit as formidable as the long-serving Soviet stalwart Andrei
Gromyko as Moscow holds out against a U.S.-led push for new
sanctions on Syria and the removal of President Bashar al-Assad.
Lavrov is the cause of much hand-wringing and frustration in
the West, where his country’s policies are seen as an obstacle
to ending the bloodshed in Syria.
But he has won plaudits in Russia for his stubborn defence
of Moscow’s position. For hawkish President Vladimir Putin, back
in the Kremlin after a four-year absence, he is the right person
in the right place at the right time.
At 62, the former U.N. ambassador seems to be relishing the
challenge. Long accustomed to criticism, Lavrov has made an art
of stonewall diplomacy and shrugs off each new attack on
Russia’s position on Syria by simply restating policy.
“It’s a diplomatic game for Sergei Lavrov,” said Fyodor
Lukyanov, editor of the Russia in Global Affairs magazine.
Anyone who doubted Lavrov’s stubbornness before the conflict
in Syria should look back to 2003, when he defied attempts by
then U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan to impose a smoking ban
at the United Nations headquarters in New York. Lavrov carried
on smoking, saying Annan “doesn’t own this building”.
Described by both admirers and rivals as highly professional
and a tough negotiator, he also has a sharp tongue. Annan said
he “learnt to appreciate both his wisdom and his wit”.
In nearly a decade as Moscow’s U.N. envoy – a post also held
by Gromyko before becoming foreign minister in Soviet times –
Lavrov won a reputation for digging in his heels.
It was there he honed his skills in the cut and thrust of
diplomacy which would at times be used later to antagonise
rivals or partners who saw the world differently, including
former U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.
Glenn Kessler, a veteran journalist and member of the Council
on Foreign Relations, a U.S. think tank, described him as “a
showman who doesn’t hesitate to use a diplomatic stiletto”. Of
his relationship with Rice: he knew how to “push her buttons”,
BUILDING UP RUSSIA’S IMAGE
Lavrov’s expertise and reputation as a strong negotiator
made him a natural choice for Putin when the president sought to
replace Igor Ivanov as foreign minister in July 2004.
Although Putin is in charge of foreign policy as head of
state, Russian experts say Lavrov is more than just an executor
of policies dictated to him by the Kremlin.
“There’s no one to touch him in terms of professionalism and
as a communicator,” said Vladimir Frolov, the former director of
the National Laboratory for Foreign Policy think tank who is now
head of a communication company called LEFF Group.
“His independence depends on the issue. On Syria he is
clearly very influential. He’s pretty much the driver of policy
and he can claim with some credibility that he’s pulled Russia
back into the centre of international decision-making.”
In the West, he and his country are assailed for blocking
calls for Assad to leave power. When Annan quit as special envoy
for Syria on Thursday, he complained of “finger-pointing and
name-calling in the Security Council” and a lack of will for
peace among the protagonists.
U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton vented her
frustration last month, saying Russia and China would “pay a
price” for using their Security Council veto power to help keep
the Syrian leader in power.
Lavrov’s unsmiling response was simply to restate Russia’s
position, underlining that its policy was not shaped around
keeping any individual in power and suggesting Moscow was being
subjected to blackmail to force it to change its position.
Moscow’s stance is shaped partly by hard-nosed interests.
Russia has a naval maintenance facility in Syria and sells arms
to Damascus. It wants to keep a foothold in the Middle East.
But its battle is also ideological: Russia wants to halt
what it sees as a Western drive to use the United Nations to
topple leaders the West dislikes. There is no doubt Lavrov
supports Moscow’s policy on this wholeheartedly.
THE “REAL LAVROV”
Putin’s return to the Kremlin in May also appears to suit
Lavrov, who kept his job when the relatively liberal Dmitry
Medvedev was elected president in 2008 after Putin was barred by
the constitution from seeking a third straight term.
A senior Moscow-based diplomat said Lavrov had a “much
greater voice” in the government since Putin’s return to the
presidency and that “the real Lavrov” was back.
Lavrov, a career diplomat whose first posting was to Sri
Lanka, will not stay in office as long as Gromyko, who was
Soviet foreign minister for 28 years and earned the nickname Mr
Nyet for blocking Western moves at the United Nations.
But Lavrov, who is said by diplomatic sources to respect
Gromyko, has shown he is a political survivor by keeping his job
for eight years, despite talk of rivalry between him and Kremlin
foreign policy adviser Sergei Prikhodko.
A member of the United Russia party that was led until
recently by Putin, he is a pragmatist and has survived partly by
presenting himself as a professional diplomat and avoiding
playing any overt role in domestic politics.
Lavrov, who speaks English, French and Sinhalese, has come
through repeated crises, defending Moscow’s policies just as
firmly on issues such as democracy and human rights as on the
2008 war with Georgia and wars with the rebel Chechnya region.
RAFTING AND SMOKING
It has not always been easy. When serving at the U.N.
headquarters under President Boris Yeltsin, whose grip on power
was often weaker than Putin’s, Lavrov sometimes had to endure a
frustrating wait for instructions.
Once when he told fellow Security Council representatives
that he was waiting for instructions from the government, he was
heard mumbling: “That is, if I have a government.”
When Russia was pressing for sanctions to be eased on Iraq,
a U.S. official in a closed Security Council session told Lavrov
that this would be like “approving a restaurant with cockroaches
in the soup.”
According to diplomatic sources, Lavrov answered: “We are
not asking you to give Iraq five stars. We only want you to say
that it is Kentucky Fried Chicken.”
On one occasion he was reported by a British newspaper to
have lost his cool by swearing at then British Foreign Secretary
David Miliband during a telephone call on the Georgia war.
The Foreign Ministry denied the report. Lavrov said he had
quoted a European colleague who had referred to Georgia’s leader
as a “fucking lunatic”.
Lavrov, who is married with one daughter, likes to relax by
white-water rafting with old friends once a year, plays the
guitar and has written poetry as well as the anthem of the elite
foreign relations institute in Moscow where he studied.
He does not suffer fools. If he loses patience, he will ask:
“What are you talking about?” If he does not want to speak to
reporters, he pins his cell phone to his ear.
“He reached for a Marlboro whenever he could and enjoyed a
glass of scotch whisky,” said Evelyn Leopold, who covered him
for years as a former Reuters U.N. correspondent.
Whatever Annan says, Lavrov will smoke if he wants to.