Principal among them, according to Serhiy
Taran of the International Democracy Institute, is the 1994
Budapest Memorandum. Ukraine received national security assurances on
behalf of Russia, America and the UK in exchange for giving up its nuclear
weapons arsenal – the third largest in the world at the time.
Later on, China and France joined its
provisions in the form of individual statements. The presidents of Ukraine, the
Russian Federation, the U.S., and the prime minister of the UK signed the
memorandums on Dec. 5, 1994 in connection with the accession of Ukraine to the
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.
Russia has also violated the 1997 Russian
Black Sea basing agreement, insist Ukrainian and U.S. authorities. In 1997,
Ukraine allowed Russia to base its Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol for an annual
payment of $93 million until 2017. Fugitive Ex-President Viktor Yanukovych
extended the lease until 2042 in exchange for a natural gas price discount.