Poland has become the main destination country for labor migrants from Ukraine, according to the publication “Migration in Ukraine: Figures and Facts” prepared by the International Organization for Migration, the United Nations Agency for Migration in Ukraine (IOM).
“Emigration to the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary has increased in a certain way. As before, Poland is the main destination for Ukrainians,” Doctor of Public Administration, an expert on migration issues Olena Malynovska said at the presentation of the publication in Kyiv on Oct. 29.
In particular, in 2020, some 1.329 million applications of Polish employers about their intention to employ a citizen of Ukraine were registered. It is estimated that the labor participation of Ukrainians in the Polish economy has provided 13% of its growth in recent years.
“There has been a noticeable increase in the number of applications by Ukrainians to acquire a long-term or permanent permit to stay abroad, in particular in Poland. The pandemic, which limited the possibility for circular migration, that is, periodic trips abroad, has led to an intensification of the tendency for a part of temporary labor migration to become permanent or for a long migration,” Malynovska said.
According to the publication, in 2020, private remittances to Ukraine amounted to $11.888 billion, while foreign direct investment amounted to $868 billion less.
In addition, in 2020, Ukraine issued 12,000 immigration permits and 293,600 permanent residence permits.
“The number of foreign students has been growing, and this is a positive phenomenon, but I want to draw your attention to the fact that last year there was a third less invitations for applicants, that is, the replenishment of the contingent of foreign students last year took place at a lower level. In the coming years, we will have a reduction in the number of foreign students,” Malynovska said.
According to the data indicated in the publication, the number of immigrants on the territory of Ukraine is decreasing, while the number of emigrants is growing. In particular, 4.997 million people of immigrants lived in Ukraine in 2020 (some 6.893 million people in 1990), while 6.139 million people of emigrants from Ukraine lived abroad (some 5.546 million people in 1990).
According to the Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine, as of July 2021, the total number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Ukraine reached 1.474 million people.
The publication informs that in 2020 the population of Ukraine was 41.6 million, while in 2018 the population was 42.4 million. It is noted that in 2020, some 616,800 people died in Ukraine, and 293,400 people were born.
It is indicated that Ukraine’s GDP is still below the 2013 level. In particular, in 2020, Ukraine’s GDP was $142.3 billion, while in 2013 it was $183.3 billion. At the end of 2020, the unemployment rate in Ukraine was 10.1%, which was the highest since 2014. It is noted that the poverty level in Ukraine is 23.3%, below the poverty line are 8.8 million citizens.
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