• On 30 September 2022, Russian forces almost certainly struck a convoy south-east of the town of Zaporizhzhia. Local authorities report 25 civilians killed. The munition involved was likely a Russian long-range air defence missile being used in a ground attack role.
  • Russia’s stock of such missiles is highly likely limited and is a high-value resource designed to shoot down modern aircraft and incoming missiles, rather than for use against ground targets. Its use in ground attack role has almost certainly been driven by overall munitions shortages, particularly longer-range precision missiles.
  • On the same day, President Putin signed annexation agreements for Zaporizhzhia and other parts of occupied Ukraine. Russia is expending strategically valuable military assets in attempts to achieve tactical advantage and in the process is killing civilians it now claims are its own citizens.
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