• In the early hours of 28 April 2023, Russia launched the first major wave of cruise missile strikes against Ukraine since early March 2023. Although Ukraine shot down most of the missiles, at least 25 civilians were killed.
  • The attacks suggest a departure in Russia’s use of long-range strikes. The wave involved fewer missiles than those over the winter and was unlikely to have been targeting Ukraine’s energy infrastructure. There is a realistic possibility that Russia was attempting to intercept Ukrainian reserve units and military supplies recently provided to Ukraine.
  • Russia operates an inefficient targeting process and prioritises perceived military necessity over preventing collateral damage, including civilian deaths.


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